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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 May;61(5):995-8. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkn051. Epub 2008 Feb 14.

Mutations in penicillin-binding proteins 1, 2 and 3 are responsible for amoxicillin resistance in Helicobacter pylori.

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Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan.



To elucidate the relationship between the mutations of penicillin-binding protein (PBP)1, PBP2 and PBP3 and amoxicillin resistance in Helicobacter pylori.


The mutations detected only in clinical amoxicillin-resistant strains were determined by comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of PBP1(HP0597), PBP2(HP1556) and PBP3(HP1565) encoded by the pbp1, ftsI and pbp2 genes, respectively, in 13 clinical H. pylori strains and three ATCC strains. The contribution of the mutations in PBPs was analysed by the natural transformation of the amoxicillin-susceptible strain ATCC 700392 with various combinations of the pbp1, ftsI and pbp2 genes from the amoxicillin-resistant strain TH743 (MIC of amoxicillin: 8 mg/L).


We initially identified six, four and two mutations of PBP1, PBP2 and PBP3, respectively, which were detected only in amoxicillin-resistant strains. By the natural transformation of an amoxicillin-susceptible strain ATCC 700392, we found that mutations in PBP1 and PBP3 conferred higher resistance to amoxicillin than mutations in PBP1 and PBP2, or mutations only in PBP1. Furthermore, mutations in PBP1, PBP2 and PBP3 conferred a 256-fold higher amoxicillin resistance when compared with ATCC 700392.


Multiple mutations in PBP2 and PBP3, in addition to mutations in PBP1, confer higher amoxicillin resistance in H. pylori.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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