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Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 May;294(5):E841-5. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00653.2006. Epub 2008 Feb 12.

Insulin regulation of MCP-1 in human adipose tissue of obese and lean women.

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University of Helsinki, Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Biomedicum, FIN-00029 HUCH, Helsinki, Finland.


CCL2 (MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) and CCL3 (MIP-1alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha) are required for macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue. Insulin increases CCL2 expression in adipose tissue and in serum more in insulin-resistant obese than in insulin-sensitive lean mice, but whether this is true in humans is unknown. We compared basal expression and insulin regulation of CCL2 and CCL3 in adipose tissue and MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha in serum between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive human subjects. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and blood samples were obtained before and at the end of 6 h of in vivo euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (maintained by the insulin clamp technique) in 11 lean insulin-sensitive and 10 obese insulin-resistant women, and before and after a 6-h saline infusion in 8 women. Adipose tissue mRNA concentrations of monocyte/macrophage markers CD68, EMR1, ITGAM, ADAM8, chemokines CCL2 and CCL3, and housekeeping gene ribosomal protein large P0 (RPLP0) were measured by means of real-time PCR at baseline. In addition, mRNA concentrations of CCL2, CCL3, and RPLP0 were measured after insulin infusion. Levels of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were determined in serum, and protein concentration of MCP-1 was determined in adipose tissue at baseline and after insulin infusion. Basally, expression of the macrophage markers CD68 and EMR1 were increased in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant subjects. Insulin increased MCP-1 gene and protein expression significantly more in the insulin-resistant than in the insulin-sensitive subjects. Basally expression of CCL2 and CCL3 and expression of macrophage markers CD68 and ITGAM were significantly correlated. In serum, MCP-1 decreased significantly in insulin-sensitive but not insulin-resistant subjects. MIP-1alpha was undetectable in serum. Insulin regulation of CCL2 differs between insulin-sensitive and -resistant subjects in a direction that could exacerbate adipose tissue inflammation.

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