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J Exp Bot. 2008;59(3):533-44. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erm344. Epub 2008 Feb 10.

Annexins: multifunctional components of growth and adaptation.

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Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK.


Plant annexins are ubiquitous, soluble proteins capable of Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent binding to endomembranes and the plasma membrane. Some members of this multigene family are capable of binding to F-actin, hydrolysing ATP and GTP, acting as peroxidases or cation channels. These multifunctional proteins are distributed throughout the plant and throughout the life cycle. Their expression and intracellular localization are under developmental and environmental control. The in vitro properties of annexins and their known, dynamic distribution patterns suggest that they could be central regulators or effectors of plant growth and stress signalling. Potentially, they could operate in signalling pathways involving cytosolic free calcium and reactive oxygen species.

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