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Eur Heart J. 2008 Oct;29(20):2526-35. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehn022. Epub 2008 Feb 9.

Assessing aortic valve area in aortic stenosis by continuity equation: a novel approach using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.

Author information

1
Division of Cardiology, Cardiac Ultrasound Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Abstract

AIMS:

Two-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) continuity-equation derived aortic valve area (AVA) in aortic stenosis (AS) relies on non-simultaneous measurement of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) velocity and geometric assumptions of LVOT area, which can amplify error, especially in upper septal hypertrophy (USH). We hypothesized that real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) can improve accuracy of AVA by directly measuring LVOT stroke volume (SV) in one window.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

RT3DE colour Doppler and 2DE were acquired in 68 AS patients (74 +/- 12 yrs) prospectively. SV was derived from flow obtained from a sampling curve placed orthogonal to LVOT (Tomtec Imaging). Agreement between continuity-equation derived AVA by RT3DE (AVA(3D-SV)) and 2DE (AVA(2D)) and predictors of discrepancies were analysed. Validation of LVOT SV was performed by aortic flow probe in a sheep model with balloon inflation of septum to mimic USH. There was only modest correlation between AVA(2D) and AVA(3D-SV) (r = 0.71, difference 0.11 +/- 0.23 cm(2)). The degree of USH was significantly associated with difference in AVA calculation (r = 0.4, P = 0.005). In experimentally distorted LVOT geometry in sheep, RT3DE correlated better with flow probe assessment (r = 0.96, P < 0.001) than 2DE (r = 0.71, P = 0.006).

CONCLUSION:

RT3DE colour Doppler-derived LVOT SV in the calculation of AVA by continuity equation is more accurate than 2D, including in situations such as USH, common in the elderly, which modify LVOT geometry.

PMID:
18263866
PMCID:
PMC2721715
DOI:
10.1093/eurheartj/ehn022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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