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Atherosclerosis. 2008 Oct;200(2):410-6. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.12.034. Epub 2008 Feb 11.

Dietary salt restriction increases plasma lipoprotein and inflammatory marker concentrations in hypertensive patients.

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1
Endocrinology and Metabolism Division, Faculty of Medical Sciences of the University of Sao Paulo, Lipids Lab LIM10, Hospital das Clínicas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. lipideq@usp.br

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Dietary salt restriction has been reported to adversely modify the plasma lipoprotein profile in hypertensive and in normotensive subjects. We investigated the effects of the low sodium intake (LSI) on the plasma lipoprotein profile and on inflammation and thrombosis biomarkers during the fasting and postprandial periods.

METHODS:

Non-obese, non-treated hypertensive adults (n=41) were fed strictly controlled diets. An initial week on a control diet (CD, Na=160 mmol/day) was followed by 3 weeks on LSI (Na=60 mmol/day). At admission and on the last day of each period, the 24-h ambulatory blood pressure was monitored and blood was drawn after an overnight fasting period and after a fat-rich test meal.

RESULTS:

The dietary adherence was confirmed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Fasting triglyceride (TG), chylomicron-cholesterol, hsC-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations, renin activity, aldosterone, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were higher, but non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were lower on LSI than on CD. For LSI, areas under the curve (AUC) of TG, chylomicron-cholesterol, apoB and the cholesterol/apoB ratio were increased, whereas AUC-NEFA was lowered. LSI did not modify body weight, hematocrit, fasting plasma cholesterol, glucose, adiponectin, leptin, fibrinogen and factor VII (FVII), and AUC of lipoprotein lipase and of lipoprotein remnants.

CONCLUSION:

LSI induced alterations in the plasma lipoproteins and in inflammatory markers that are common features of the metabolic syndrome.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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