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Am J Med. 2008 Feb;121(2):119-26. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.09.020.

Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis improves outcome.

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  • 1Section of Hepatology, Hume-Lee Transplant Center of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0341, USA.



Liver transplantation has become an effective treatment for cirrhotic patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. We hypothesized that the quality of surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma influences prognosis by affecting access to liver transplantation.


A total of 269 patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were retrospectively categorized into 3 groups according to quality of surveillance: standard-of-care (n=172) (group 1); substandard surveillance (n=48) (group 2); and absence of surveillance in patients not recognized to be cirrhotic (n=59) (group 3).


Three-year survival in the 60 patients who underwent liver transplantation was 81% versus 12% for patients who did not undergo transplantation (P<.001). The percentages of patients who underwent transplantation according to tumor stage at diagnosis (T1, T2, T3, and T4) were 58%, 35%, 10%, and 1%, respectively. Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed at stages 1 and 2 in 70% of patients in group 1, 37% of patients in group 2, and only 18% of patients in group 3 (P <.001). Liver transplantation was performed in 32% of patients in group 1, 13% of patients in group 2, and 7% of patients in group 3 (P<.001). Three-year survival from cancer diagnosis in patients in group 3 (12%) was significantly worse than in patients in group 1 (39%) or group 2 (27%) (each P<.05). Eighty percent of patients in group 3 had subtle abnormalities of cirrhosis on routine laboratory tests.


The quality of surveillance has a direct impact on hepatocellular carcinoma stage at diagnosis, access to liver transplantation, and survival.

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