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AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008 Feb;24(2):271-81. doi: 10.1089/aid.2007.0148.

Nasal immunization with a recombinant HIV gp120 and nanoemulsion adjuvant produces Th1 polarized responses and neutralizing antibodies to primary HIV type 1 isolates.

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Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences (MNIMBS), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.


Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that both robust neutralizing antibodies and potent cellular responses play important roles in controlling primary HIV-1 infection. In this study we have investigated the induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to HIV gp120 monomer immunogen administered intranasally in a novel, oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant. Mice and guinea pigs intranasally immunized by the application of recombinant HIV gp120 antigen mixed in NE demonstrated robust serum anti-gp120 IgG, as well as bronchial, vaginal, and serum anti-gp120 IgA in mice. The serum of these animals demonstrated antibodies that cross-reacted with heterologous serotypes of gp120 and had significant neutralizing activity against two clade-B laboratory strains of HIV (HIVBaL and HIVSF162) and five primary HIV-1 isolates. The analysis of gp120-specific CTL proliferation, INF-gamma induction, and prevalence of anti-gp120 IgG2 subclass antibodies indicated that nasal vaccination in NE also induced systemic, Th1-polarized cellular immune responses. This study suggests that NE should be evaluated as a mucosal adjuvant for multivalent HIV vaccines.

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