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Appl Opt. 1997 Aug 1;36(22):5499-507.

Reflectance measurements on clean surfaces for the determination of optical constants of silicon in the extreme ultraviolet-soft-x-ray region.


The refractive index n = 1 - delta + ibeta of Si in the energy range 50-180 eV is investigated with angle-dependent reflectance measurements. The optical constants delta and beta are both determined by fitting to the Fresnel equations. The results of this method are compared with the values in the atomic tables derived from experimental data for beta and implementation of the Kramers-Kronig relations for delta. The samples were prepared by UV irradiation and HF:ethanol dipping to H passivate the surface. It is found that the values of delta in the atomic tables are 8-15% too high in the region 50-90 eV. This is attributed to missing oscillator strength in the tabulated absorption coefficient for Si. The measured values of beta for crystalline Si exhibit structure below the L (2,3) edge (99.8 eV), as was previously observed in transmission measurements of Si(111). It is also found that the method of least-squares fitting reflectance data to obtain optical constants is most effective for energies well below the edge, where delta > beta, while for a range of energies around and above the edge, where delta < beta, the optical constants are determined with large uncertainties. This behavior is not unique to the Si L(2,3) edge.

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