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Hypertension. 2008 Apr;51(4):1149-55. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.107342. Epub 2008 Feb 7.

Gender disparities in blood pressure control and cardiovascular care in a national sample of ambulatory care visits.

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1
Geriatrics Research, Education, and Clinical Center, James J. Peters Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA. salomeh.keyhani@mountsinai.org

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to provide an analysis of gender-based disparities in hypertension and cardiovascular disease care in ambulatory practices across the United States. Using data from the 2005 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of patient visits with their primary care providers and examined the association between gender and blood pressure control, use of any antihypertensive medication or initiation of new therapy for patients with uncontrolled hypertension, and receipt of recommended therapy for select cardiovascular conditions. Multivariable models were estimated to examine the association between gender and each outcome controlling for other variables. A total of 12 064 patient visits were identified (7786 women and 4278 men). Among patients with hypertension, women were less likely than men to meet blood pressure control targets (54.0% versus 58.7%; P<0.02). In multivariate analyses, women aged 65 to 80 years were less likely than men to have controlled hypertension (odds ratio: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.85). There was no association between gender and use of any antihypertensive medication or initiating a new therapy among patients with uncontrolled hypertension. In multivariate analyses, women were less likely than men to receive aspirin (odds ratio: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.67) and beta-blockers (odds ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.99) for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Our study highlights the persistent gender disparities in blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease management and also reveals the inadequate delivery of cardiovascular care to all patients.

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