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Vet Res. 2008 Mar-Apr;39(2):18. doi: 10.1051/vetres:2007057. Epub 2008 Jan 29.

Escherichia coli, but not Staphylococcus aureus triggers an early increased expression of factors contributing to the innate immune defense in the udder of the cow.

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1
Clinic for Ruminants, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.

Abstract

The outcome of an udder infection is influenced by the pathogen species. We established a strictly defined infection model to better analyze the unknown molecular causes for these pathogen-specific effects, using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains previously asseverated from field cases of mastitis. Inoculation of quarters with 500 CFU of E. coli (n = 4) was performed 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h before culling. All animals showed signs of acute clinical mastitis 12 h after challenge: increased somatic cell count (SCC), decreased milk yield, leukopenia, fever, and udder swelling. Animals inoculated with 10 000 CFU of S. aureus for 24 h (n = 4) showed no or only modest clinical signs of mastitis. However, S. aureus caused clinical signs in animals, inoculated for 72 h-84 h. Real-time PCR proved that E. coli inoculation strongly and significantly upregulated the expression of beta-defensins, TLR2 and TLR4 in the pathogen inoculated udder quarters as well as in mammary lymph nodes. TLR3 and TLR6 were not significantly regulated by the infections. Immuno-histochemistry identified mammary epithelial cells as sites for the upregulated TLR2 and beta-defensin expression. S. aureus, in contrast, did not significantly regulate the expression of any of these genes during the first 24 h after pathogen inoculation. Only 84 h after inoculation, the expression of beta-defensins, but not of TLRs was significantly (> 20 fold) upregulated in five out of six pathogen inoculated quarters. Using the established mastitis model, the data clearly demonstrate a pathogen-dependent difference in the time kinetics of induced pathogen receptors and defense molecules.

PMID:
18258172
DOI:
10.1051/vetres:2007057
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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