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Intensive Care Med. 2008 May;34(5):957-62. doi: 10.1007/s00134-008-1017-8. Epub 2008 Feb 5.

Cardiorenal syndrome: refining the definition of a complex symbiosis gone wrong.

Author information

1
Department of Nephrology, St. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The term "cardiorenal syndrome" has generally been reserved for declining renal function in the setting of advanced congestive heart failure. Considering the complex and bi-directional relationship between the heart and the kidneys, we postulate refining the definition to recognize the symbiotic nature of these organs.

DISCUSSION:

We divide the cardiorenal syndrome into five subtypes: type I, acute cardiorenal syndrome; type II, chronic cardiorenal syndrome; type III, acute renocardiac syndrome; type IV, chronic renocardiac syndrome; and type V, secondary cardiorenal syndrome.

CONCLUSIONS:

As early recognition of dysfunction in one organ may prove important in mitigating the spiral of co-dysfunction in both, the need for early and treatment-guiding biomarkers, along with their characteristics, are also discussed.

PMID:
18251008
DOI:
10.1007/s00134-008-1017-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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