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Appl Opt. 1997 Jan 1;36(1):116-24.

Experimental verification of a theory for the time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of thick tissues.


Fluorescence spectroscopy provides potential contrast enhancement for near-infrared tissue imaging and physiologically correlated spectroscopy. We present a fluorescence photon migration model and test its quantitative predictive capabilities with a frequency-domain measurement that involves a homogeneous multiple-scattering tissue phantom (with optical properties similar to those of tissue in the near infrared) that contains a fluorophore (rhodamine B). After demonstrating the validity of the model, we explore its ability to recover the fluorophore's spectral properties from within the multiple-scattering medium. The absolute quantum yield and the lifetime of the fluorophore are measured to within a few percent of the values measured independently in the absence of scattering. Both measurements are accomplished without the use of reference fluorophores. In addition, the model accurately predicts the fluorescence emission spectrum in the scattering medium. Implications of these absolute measurements of lifetime, quantum yield, concentration, and emission spectrum from within multiple-scattering media are discussed.

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