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Prostate. 2008 May 15;68(7):773-83. doi: 10.1002/pros.20739.

1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 down-regulates expression of prostate specific membrane antigen in prostate cancer cells.

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Brown Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.



Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression correlates with prostate cancer grade and is increased in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The increased expression of PSMA following androgen deprivation therapy may be a consequence of the down-regulation of PSMA expression by androgen. Moreover, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-VD) has been shown to suppress prostate cancer progression as well as cell motility and invasion. Since PSMA is positively correlated with both of these characteristics, we hypothesized that 1,25-VD would regulate PSMA expression.


LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with 1,25-VD, followed by analysis of cell surface PSMA expression. The PSMA enhancer, located within the third intron of the PSMA gene, was cloned into a reporter vector and regulation by 1,25-VD was investigated. The role of the androgen receptor (AR) in 1,25-VD mediated suppression of PSMA expression was examined using Casodex and AR specific siRNA.


Surface expression of PSMA was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by 10 nM 1,25-VD or greater. Regulation by 1,25-VD occurred at the level of the PSMA enhancer. Over-expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) also decreased expression of PSMA. Additionally, suppression of AR translation using siRNA technology blocked the suppressive effect of 1,25-VD on PSMA expression, however inhibition of PSMA expression by 1,25-VD occurred in the absence of androgens.


Suppression of PSMA by 1,25-VD occurs at the level of the PSMA enhancer and is elevated by over-expression of the VDR. This regulation involves the AR, but is not dependent on the presence of androgens.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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