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Prostate. 2008 May 15;68(7):773-83. doi: 10.1002/pros.20739.

1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 down-regulates expression of prostate specific membrane antigen in prostate cancer cells.

Author information

1
Brown Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. rita.serda@uth.tmc.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression correlates with prostate cancer grade and is increased in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The increased expression of PSMA following androgen deprivation therapy may be a consequence of the down-regulation of PSMA expression by androgen. Moreover, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-VD) has been shown to suppress prostate cancer progression as well as cell motility and invasion. Since PSMA is positively correlated with both of these characteristics, we hypothesized that 1,25-VD would regulate PSMA expression.

METHODS:

LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with 1,25-VD, followed by analysis of cell surface PSMA expression. The PSMA enhancer, located within the third intron of the PSMA gene, was cloned into a reporter vector and regulation by 1,25-VD was investigated. The role of the androgen receptor (AR) in 1,25-VD mediated suppression of PSMA expression was examined using Casodex and AR specific siRNA.

RESULTS:

Surface expression of PSMA was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by 10 nM 1,25-VD or greater. Regulation by 1,25-VD occurred at the level of the PSMA enhancer. Over-expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) also decreased expression of PSMA. Additionally, suppression of AR translation using siRNA technology blocked the suppressive effect of 1,25-VD on PSMA expression, however inhibition of PSMA expression by 1,25-VD occurred in the absence of androgens.

CONCLUSIONS:

Suppression of PSMA by 1,25-VD occurs at the level of the PSMA enhancer and is elevated by over-expression of the VDR. This regulation involves the AR, but is not dependent on the presence of androgens.

PMID:
18247401
DOI:
10.1002/pros.20739
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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