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J Immunol. 1991 Jan 1;146(1):128-35.

Induction of human monocyte IL-1 mRNA and secretion during anti-CD3 mitogenesis requires two distinct T cell-derived signals.

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Section of Hematology and Oncology, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL 60153.


The T cell signals that regulate the induction of human monocyte IL-1 during primary immune activation were investigated by using anti-CD3 mitogenesis. The induction of monocyte IL-1 alpha and beta mRNA during anti-CD3 mitogenesis was rapid (less than or equal to 1 h) and required the presence of both T cells and anti-CD3. The addition of T cells plus a nonmitogenic anti-CD5 antibody failed to induce IL-1 alpha or beta mRNA, indicating that IL-1 mRNA induction by anti-CD3 required T cell activation. Experiments using double chamber culture wells revealed that the major initial phase of IL-1 alpha and beta mRNA induction (1 to 12 h) required direct cell contact between monocytes and T cells. A subsequent minor late phase (greater than or equal to 12 h) of IL-1 mRNA was induced independently of cell contact in monocytes that received only soluble factors generated during anti-CD3 mitogenesis and was temporally associated with the appearance in culture supernatants of the late phase IL-1-inducing cytokines, IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. Metabolic inactivation of T cells using paraformaldehyde demonstrated that the ability of T cells to induce IL-1 mRNA via cell contact was acquired only after activation of T cells via solid phase anti-CD3. Furthermore, pretreatment of T cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor emetine had no effect on T cell-mediated induction of monocyte IL-1 mRNA or cell-associated IL-1 alpha and beta, indicating that the expression of the IL-1 inductive signal did not require protein synthesis. Despite their ability to induce monocyte IL-1 alpha and beta mRNA, activated T cells treated with paraformaldehyde or emetine were no longer able to induce monocytes to secrete IL-1 beta into culture supernatants. However, supernatants from purified T cells that were activated with solid-phase anti-CD3 restored the ability of paraformaldehyde or emetine-treated T cells to induce IL-1 secretion. These studies provide evidence that supports a two-signal model of monocyte IL-1 production during primary immune activation. The first signal leads to the induction of monocyte IL-1 mRNA and is mediated by direct contact with activated T cells, and the second signal is provided by soluble T cell factors and results in IL-1 secretion.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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