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Peptides. 2008 Apr;29(4):536-44. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2007.12.010. Epub 2008 Feb 19.

Novel peptide toxins from the sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni.

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Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan-4, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan.


Four peptide toxins, SHTX I-III with crab-paralyzing activity and SHTX IV with crab lethality, were isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni and their primary structures elucidated by protein sequencing and cDNA cloning. SHTX I (new toxin, 28 residues), II (analogue of SHTX I, 28 residues) and III (Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, 62 residues) are potassium channel toxins and SHTX IV (48 residues) is a member of the type 2 sea anemone sodium channel toxins. The precursor protein of SHTX IV is composed of a signal peptide, propart and mature peptide, while the propart is missing in that of SHTX III. In addition to these four toxins, an epidermal growth factor-like peptide was detected in S. haddoni by RT-PCR.

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