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Toxicon. 2008 Apr;51(5):882-9. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2007.12.015. Epub 2007 Dec 23.

Microcystin production by Microcystis aeruginosa exposed to different stages of herbivorous zooplankton.

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Department of Biology Education, Kongju National University, Kongju, 314-701, South Korea.


Microcystin (MC) production by four monoclonal Microcystis aeruginosa strains was evaluated in response to infochemicals (indirect exposure) released from different stages of herbivorous zooplankton (neonate/juvenile and adult Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa). The intracellular MC and extracellular MC concentrations were significantly different among the control and treatments with zooplankton culture media filtrates (p<0.05), and in most cases MC production was significantly higher (p<0.05) in strains exposed to infochemicals released from adult zooplankton rather than those of neonate/juvenile zooplankton in four strains of M. aeruginosa. Compared to intracellular MC (385.0-5598.6microg g(-1)DW), very low concentrations of extracellular MC (9.9-737.6microg ml(-1)) were released, but both showed similar temporal patterns over the course of the experiment. This result might be attributed to the fact that adult zooplankton produced more infochemical signals than equal numbers of smaller juveniles and neonates. It is the first study to provide evidence that MC production might be impacted by infochemicals released from different stages of zooplankton, mediated with physiological characteristics, body size, and feeding habits.

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