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Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40(6-7):1169-84. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2007.12.003. Epub 2007 Dec 23.

Protease-activated receptors in the musculoskeletal system.

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1
School of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia. ejmackie@unimelb.edu.au

Abstract

Protease-activated receptors (PARs) mediate cellular responses to a subset of extracellular proteases, including blood coagulation factors and proteases produced by inflammatory cells. Cells in bone, cartilage and muscle exhibit cell type-specific expression patterns and functional responses for the different PARs. Activators of PAR-1 include thrombin, and activators of PAR-2 include trypsin and tryptase; PARs-3 and -4 are also receptors for thrombin. Thrombin stimulates PAR-1-mediated proliferative responses in osteoblasts, chondrocytes and myoblasts, and in developing muscle, PAR-1 activation by thrombin appears to mediate activity-dependent polyneuronal synapse reduction. In bone, activation of PAR-2 leads to inhibition of osteoblast-mediated osteoclast differentiation induced by hormones or cytokines, and in muscle, PAR-2 activation leads to stimulation of myoblast proliferation. Although there is some evidence for a role for PARs expressed by cells of the musculoskeletal system at specific stages of development, their major role appears to be in protecting the tissues from the destructive effects of inflammation and promoting regeneration. This review discusses the regulation of cell function in the musculoskeletal system by receptor-mediated responses to proteases. Expression patterns of PARs, the circumstances in which PAR activators are likely to be present, functional responses of PAR activation, and responses to thrombin for which receptors have not yet been identified are considered.

PMID:
18243039
DOI:
10.1016/j.biocel.2007.12.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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