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Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008 Apr 29;60(7):813-23. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2007.11.004. Epub 2007 Dec 27.

Recognition of viral single-stranded RNA by Toll-like receptors.

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1
King's College London, 2nd Floor Borough Wing, Peter Gorer Department of Immunobiology, Guy's Hospital, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom. sandra.diebold@kcl.ac.uk

Abstract

The Toll-like receptors (TLR), mediating innate immune activation upon recognition of viral nucleic acids, represent promising targets for the development of adjuvants. Therefore, there is great interest in unraveling the underlying mechanisms of ligand recognition. Studies aiming to identify which sequences, nucleic acid modifications and molecular moieties of viral nucleic acids trigger or inhibit TLR activation have allowed insights into this subject, yet there are still many aspects of innate recognition of viral nucleic acids which are only partially understood. This review discusses our current understanding of TLR-mediated recognition of viral single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) by TLR7 and TLR8. Oligoribonucleotides (ORN) and small immune response modifiers such as imidazoquinolines with agonist function have served as tools to study ligand recognition. In addition, there is increasing evidence that TLR-mediated recognition of mammalian ssRNA triggers innate immune activation and plays a role in autoimmunity. Thus the development of suitable TLR7 and TLR8 antagonists could pave the way for therapeutic intervention of particular autoimmune diseases.

PMID:
18241955
DOI:
10.1016/j.addr.2007.11.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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