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Cell Tissue Res. 2008 Apr;332(1):111-22. doi: 10.1007/s00441-007-0570-8. Epub 2008 Feb 1.

Chondromodulin-I and tenomodulin are differentially expressed in the avascular mesenchyme during mouse and chick development.

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Department of Cellular Differentiation, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.


Chondromodulin-I (ChM-I) and tenomodulin (TeM) are homologous angiogenesis inhibitors. We have analyzed the spatial relationships between capillary networks and the localization of these molecules during mouse and chick development. ChM-I and TeM proteins have been localized to the PECAM-1-negative avascular region: ChM-I is expressed in the avascular cartilage, whereas TeM is detectable in dense connective tissues, including tendons and ligaments. We have also examined the vasculature of chick embryos by injection with India ink and have performed in situ hybridization of the ChM-I and TeM genes. The onset of ChM-I expression is associated with chondrogenesis during mouse embryonic development. ChM-I expression is also detectable in precartilaginous or noncartilaginous avascular mesenchyme in chick embryos, including the somite, sclerotome, and heart. Hence, the expression domains of ChM-I and TeM during vertebrate development incorporate the typical avascular regions of the mesenchymal tissues.

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