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J Proteome Res. 2008 Mar;7(3):1251-63. doi: 10.1021/pr7006945. Epub 2008 Feb 1.

Defining the regulated secreted proteome of rodent adipocytes upon the induction of insulin resistance.

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1
Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

Abstract

Insulin resistance defines the metabolic syndrome and precedes, as well is the hallmark of, type II diabetes. Adipocytes, besides being a major site for energy storage, are endocrine in nature and secrete a variety of proteins, adipocytokines (adipokines), that can modulate insulin sensitivity, inflammation, obesity, hypertension, food intake (anorexigenic and orexigenic), and general energy homeostasis. Recent data demonstrates that increased intracellular glycosylation of proteins via O-GlcNAc can induce insulin resistance and that a rodent model with genetically elevated O-GlcNAc levels in muscle and fat displays hyperleptinemia. The link between O-GlcNAc levels, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine secretion is further explored here. First, with the use of immortalized and primary rodent adipocytes, the secreted proteome of differentiated adipocytes is more fully elucidated by the identification of 97 and 203 secreted proteins, respectively. Mapping of more than 80 N-linked glycosylation sites on adipocytokines from the cell lines further defines this proteome. Importantly, adipocytokines that are modulated when cells are shifted from insulin responsive to insulin resistant conditions are determined. By the use of two protocols for inducing insulin resistance, classical hyperglycemia with chronic insulin exposure and pharmacological elevation of O-GlcNAc levels, several proteins are identified that are regulated in a similar fashion under both conditions including HCNP, Quiescin Q6, Angiotensin, lipoprotein lipase, matrix metalloproteinase 2, and slit homologue 3. Detection of these potential prognostic/diagnostic biomarkers for metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and the resulting complications of both diseases further establishes the central role of the O-GlcNAc modification of intracellular proteins in the pathophysiology of these conditions.

PMID:
18237111
DOI:
10.1021/pr7006945
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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