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Psychon Bull Rev. 2007 Dec;14(6):1115-24.

A response rule for positive and negative stimulus interaction in associative learning and performance.

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Department of Psychology, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York 11550, USA.


The present article presents a response rule developed to account for both positive and negative stimulus interaction. In the response rule proposed here, positive interaction phenomena (e.g., second-order conditioning) and negative interaction phenomena (e.g., Pavlovian conditioned inhibition) are presumed to occur during performance and acquisition, respectively. Also, in this rule the novelty of the test stimulus determines the expression of positive interaction on responding. As the stimulus loses its novelty over training, positive interaction effects will wane, which will allow negative interaction effects to emerge in responding elicited by the stimulus. It is proposed that this response rule can be adopted by acquisition-focused associative models (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) in order to account for contrary associative phenomena in the literature. The simulation program used in this study is available for download from the author's website and from the Psychonomic Society website at

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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