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World J Surg. 2008 Dec;32(12):2586-92. doi: 10.1007/s00268-007-9401-z.

Skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction by a new modification of extended latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap.

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Department of Surgical Oncology, Oncology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.



The introduction of skin-sparing mastectomy has revolutionized both breast cancer surgery and breast reconstruction. Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is a versatile flap that is gaining renewed popularity with the development of flap modifications and the continued recognition of its reliability and safety. We report our results with a new modification of the extended latissimus dorsi flap after skin-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer.


From January 2002 to January 2006, 140 patients of breast carcinoma had unilateral skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction. A total of 132 cases of invasive duct carcinoma and eight cases of invasive lobular carcinoma are included. Age ranged from 27 to 53 (median, 40.5) years. Tumor stage was stage I in 22 cases, stage II in 100 cases, and stage III in 18 cases. We performed a new modification to the standard extended latissimus dorsi flap, which allowed us to obtain enough autologous tissue to reconstruct the relatively large breast of the Egyptian women without implant. The postoperative aesthetic results and donor side morbidity, including contour deformity and scaring, were examined.


We applied both an objective and subjective aesthetic result monitoring. Aesthetic grading results of breast reconstruction were excellent in 85, good in 42, fair in ten and poor in three cases. Both flap and donor site complications were minor. Patients were followed for a median of 32.4 (range, 12-48) months. During this period of follow-up, no episode of local or distant failure was observed.


Skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction using our new modification of extended latissimus dorsi flap allows single-stage, totally autologous reconstruction with satisfactory aesthetic results and low morbidity.

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