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Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2008 Sep;10(3):181-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2007.00074.x. Epub 2008 Jan 24.

Early bone tissue responses to turned and oxidized implants in the rabbit tibia.

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Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.



Previous studies have shown the formation of more bone contacts with a moderately rough and porous titanium surface, created by anodic oxidation, as compared with nonmodified turned titanium control surfaces. The mechanisms leading to a stronger bone response to oxidized titanium are not well understood.


The aim of the study was to describe the early events of bone integration of titanium implants with oxidized and turned surfaces.


Nine adult New Zealand White rabbits and 18 implants were used in the study. One oxidized and one turned threaded titanium implants, which had been placed in the right tibial metaphysis, were analyzed in the present study. The implants were retrieved after 7, 14, and 28 days for light microscopic examination and histomorphometric measurements in ground sections.


Integration of oxidized implants was seen to occur as direct bone formation on the surface, while the integration of turned implants was a result of bone ingrowth from preexisting bone and bone marrow. For oxidized implants, an almost acellular, darkly stained layer was seen after 7 to 14 days, which later became populated with osteoblasts. The presence of osteoid seams indicated appositional bone growth from the substrate toward the surrounding tissues. The bone contact values were higher for oxidized implants, and the bone area values were higher for turned implants.


The present study confirms the idea that implant surface modification alters the bone tissue response to titanium. The early bone formation following surgery occurs directly on the moderately rough oxidized surface, while turned titanium surfaces are integrated by the ingrowth of bone from the adjacent bone marrow and preexisting bone tissues.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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