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Am J Kidney Dis. 2008 Feb;51(2):192-8. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.09.023.

Race and sex differences in hypertension control in CKD: results from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP).

Author information

1
Division of General Internal Medicine/Health Services Research, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. kduru@mednet.ucla.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

African American men with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progress to end-stage renal disease more rapidly than African American women or whites. Uncontrolled hypertension worsens CKD, and disparities in hypertension control may contribute to disparities in CKD progression.

STUDY DESIGN:

Cross-sectional.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

10,827 individuals with CKD and self-reported hypertension screened in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program.

PREDICTORS:

African American race, sex.

OUTCOMES:

Hypertension control (blood pressure <130 mm Hg systolic and/or <80 mm Hg diastolic).

MEASUREMENTS:

Self-report, physical examination (blood pressure), laboratory data (serum creatinine, microalbuminuria by urine dipstick). We calculated estimated glomerular filtration rates by using the 4-variable isotope dilution mass spectrometry Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. We classified CKD as early (stages 1 to 2) or late (stages 3 to 5) based on estimated glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria.

RESULTS:

In individuals with early CKD, African American women (odds ratio [OR], 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 1.88), white men (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.39 to 2.46), and white women (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.22) had greater odds of hypertension control (blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg) than African American men. In individuals with late CKD, white men (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.52) and white women (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.46) had greater odds of hypertension control than African American men. No differences were seen between African American men and women with late CKD.

LIMITATIONS:

No information for medication regimens.

CONCLUSIONS:

African American men with CKD have poorly controlled hypertension compared with African American women and whites, particularly in the early stages of disease. Efforts to aggressively treat hypertension in this population may help narrow the race and sex disparities in progression to end-stage renal disease.

PMID:
18215697
PMCID:
PMC2866650
DOI:
10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.09.023
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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