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Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Jul;13(7):1052-7. doi: 10.3201/eid1307.061313.

Influenza pandemics in Singapore, a tropical, globally connected city.

Author information

1
Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. vernonljm@hotmail.com

Abstract

Tropical cities such as Singapore do not have well-defined influenza seasons but have not been spared from influenza pandemics. The 1918 epidemic in Singapore, which was then already a major global trading hub, occurred in 2 waves, June-July, and October-November, and resulted in > or = 2,870 deaths. The excess mortality rate was higher than that for industrialized nations in the Northern Hemisphere but lower than that for less industrialized countries in Asia and Africa. The 1957 epidemic occurred in May and resulted in widespread illness. The 1968 epidemic occurred in August and lasted a few weeks, again with widespread illness. Tropical cities may be affected early in a pandemic and have higher mortality rates. With the increase in travel and trade, a future pandemic may reach a globally connected city early and spread worldwide. Preparedness and surveillance plans must be developed to include the megacities of the tropical world.

PMID:
18214178
PMCID:
PMC2878222
DOI:
10.3201/eid1307.061313
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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