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Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2008 Feb;150(2):129-37. doi: 10.1007/s00701-007-1478-5. Epub 2008 Jan 30.

Evaluation of clinico-urodynamic outcome of bladder dysfunction after surgery in children with spinal dysraphism - a prospective study.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Postgraduate Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.



The aim was to asses the clinical profile and urodynamic findings and the outcome of surgery in children with spinal dysraphism.


Twenty five children with spinal dysraphism who were treated at our institute between January 2005 and June 2006 were studied prospectively. There were 10 with an open spina bifida and 15 closed. The clinical profile of bladder dysfunction was assessed and urodynamic evaluation done pre-operatively in each child. An ultrasound study of the kidneys was also done to assess for hydro-uretero-nephrois. All underwent surgery for their primary and associated malformations. Post-operatively, re-evaluation of bladder dysfunction and urodynamic parameters was performed at 6-8 months.


Before operation there was a history indicating that the bladder was involved in 14 of the 25 children. Six of the 10 cases with an open spina bifida showed clinical involvement of the bladder as compared to 8 of 15 with a closed pattern. Urodynamic studies showed evidence of bladder dysfunction in 19 children. Of 10 with a meningomyelocele, there were abnormal urodynamics in 9 as compared to 10 of 15 with closed dysraphism. Follow up urodynamic studies showed improvement in 9 of 20 children 3 of 7 with a meningomyelocele and 6 of 13 with closed dysraphism.


Children with open spina bifida, as compared to closed dysraphism, tend to have more bladder dysfunction as exemplified on clinical history and urodynamic assessment. A pre-operative urodynamic study helps to identify severity of bladder dysfunction which is clinically overt cases and also identifies subtle bladder dysfunction in clinically silent cases. Evaluation after operation tends to shows better outcome in children with closed dysraphism. The study also identifies deterioration in some patients with seemingly clinical improvement.

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