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New Phytol. 2008;178(1):177-88. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02344.x. Epub 2008 Jan 16.

Proton (H+) flux signature for the presymbiotic development of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

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Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, 28015-620, Brazil.


Ion dynamics are important for cell nutrition and growth in fungi and plants. Here, the focus is on the relationship between the hyphal H(+) fluxes and the control of presymbiotic growth and host recognition by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Fluxes of H(+) around azygopores and along lateral hyphae of Gigaspora margarita during presymbiotic growth, and their regulation by phosphate (P) and sucrose (Suc), were analyzed with an H(+)-specific vibrating probe. Changes in hyphal H(+) fluxes were followed after induction by root exudates (RE) or by the presence Trifolium repens roots. Differential sensitivity to P-type ATPase inhibitors (orthovanadate or erythrosin B) suggests an asymmetric distribution or activation of H(+)-pump isoforms along the hyphae of the AM fungi. Concentration of P and Suc affected the hyphal H(+) fluxes and growth rate. However, further increases in H+ efflux and growth rate were observed when the fungus was growing close to clover roots or pretreated with RE. The H(+) flux data correlate with those from polarized hyphal growth analyses, suggesting that spatial and temporal alterations of the hyphal H(+)fluxes are regulated by nutrient availability and might underlie a pH signaling elicitation by host RE during the early events of the AM symbiosis.

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