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J Hosp Infect. 2008 Feb;68(2):159-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2007.11.018. Epub 2008 Jan 18.

In-vivo efficacy of hand sanitisers against feline calicivirus: a surrogate for norovirus.

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Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA.


Hand disinfection is considered important in preventing the transmission of viruses, including norovirus. We investigated the virucidal efficacy of nine hand sanitisers (four alcohol-based sanitisers, three non-alcoholic sanitisers and two triclosan-containing antimicrobial liquid soaps) against feline calicivirus, a surrogate for norovirus, on artificially contaminated fingertips for 30 s and 2 min contact periods. Among alcohol-based sanitisers, a product containing 99.5% ethanol was more effective than those containing 62% ethanol, 70% isopropanol or 91% isopropanol. A log(10) virus reduction factor of 1.00-1.30 was achieved with 99.5% ethanol but those containing a lower alcohol concentration only achieved a log(10) reduction factor of <or=0.67. Antiseptics containing 10% povidone-iodine (equivalent to 1% available iodine) reduced virus titre by a log(10) reduction factor of 2.67 within 30s contact time. This viral reduction rate was higher than that achieved with any of the alcohol-based sanitisers, non-alcoholic sanitisers or antimicrobial soaps. The two antimicrobial soaps tested showed minimal virus reduction (a log(10) reduction factor of 0.17-0.50), which is similar to that obtained by washing hands without any soap (a log(10) reduction factor of 0.33-0.42). These results indicate that triclosan-containing antimicrobial soaps or alcohol-based hand rubs may be inadequate for preventing norovirus transmission. Further research on alternative hand sanitisers should continue for effective control of norovirus infections.

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