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Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Apr 1;228(1):114-34. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2007.12.008. Epub 2007 Dec 14.

Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures.

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Department of Toxicology, University of Würzburg, Germany.


Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ("environmentally") exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 microg/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 microg per person (<0.1 microg/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population.

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