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Blood. 2008 Apr 1;111(7):3507-13. doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-08-106229. Epub 2008 Jan 18.

Determination of surface tissue factor thresholds that trigger coagulation at venous and arterial shear rates: amplification of 100 fM circulating tissue factor requires flow.

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Institute for Medicine and Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.


Protein microarrays presenting spots of collagen and lipidated tissue factor (TF) allowed a determination of the critical surface concentration of TF required to trigger coagulation under flow. Whole blood supplemented with corn trypsin inhibitor (to inhibit factor XIIa) was perfused over microarrays for 5 minutes. Immunofluorescence staining of platelet glycoprotein GPIbalpha and fibrin(ogen) revealed a critical TF concentration (EC50) of 3.6, 8.4, and 10.2 molecules-TF/microm2 at wall shear rates of 100, 500, and 1000 s(-1), respectively. For collagen arrays where only the center lane of spots (in the direction of flow) contained TF, a downstream distance of 14 mm was required for the thrombus to widen enough to reach across a 300-micrometer gap to the adjacent TF-free lanes of collagen spots, in agreement with numerical simulation. To investigate the effect of low levels of circulating TF, whole blood (+/-100 fM added TF) was tested under static and flow conditions. After 5 minutes, the addition of 100 fM TF to whole blood had negligible effect under static conditions, but caused a 2.5-fold increase in fibrin formation under flow. This report defines the threshold concentrations of surface TF required to trigger coagulation under flow.

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