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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2008 Mar;9(3):193-205. doi: 10.1038/nrm2327.

Mechanisms of disease:Molecular and metabolic mechanisms of insulin resistance and beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes.

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Sarah W. Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology and Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, 4321 Medical Park Drive, Durham, North Carolina 27704, USA.


Nearly unlimited supplies of energy-dense foods and technologies that encourage sedentary behaviour have introduced a new threat to the survival of our species: obesity and its co-morbidities. Foremost among the co-morbidities is type 2 diabetes, which is projected to afflict 300 million people worldwide by 2020. Compliance with lifestyle modifications such as reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity has proved to be difficult for the general population, meaning that pharmacological intervention may be the only recourse for some. This epidemiological reality heightens the urgency for gaining a deeper understanding of the processes that cause metabolic failure of key tissues and organ systems in type 2 diabetes, as reviewed here.

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