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Med Phys. 2007 Dec;34(12):4605-8.

Creation and establishment of a respiratory liver motion simulator for liver interventions.

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Department of Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.


Image-guided surgery and navigation have resulted from convergent developments in radiology, teletransmission, and computer science and are well-established procedures in the surgical routine in orthopedic, neurosurgery, and head-and-neck surgery. In abdominal surgery, however, these tools have gained little attraction so far. The inability to transfer the methodology from orthopedic or neurosurgery is mainly a result of intraoperative organ movement and shifting. To practice and establish navigated interventions in the liver, a custom-designed respiratory liver motion simulator was built which models the human torso and is easy to recreate. To simulate breathing motion, an explanted porcine or human liver is mounted to the diaphragm model of the simulator, and a lung ventilator causes a periodic movement of the liver along the craniocaudal axis. Additionally, the liver can be connected to a circulating pump device which simulates hepatic perfusion and provides real surgical options to establish navigated interventions and simulate management of possible complications. Respiratory motion caused by the simulator was evaluated with an optical tracking system and it was shown that in vitro movement and deformation of a liver mounted to the device are similar to the liver movements in human or porcine bodies. Based on the tests, it is concluded that the novel respiratory liver motion simulator is suitable for in vitro evaluation of navigated systems and interventional and surgical procedures.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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