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Dev Psychol. 2008 Jan;44(1):34-45. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.34.

A follow-up study of girls with gender identity disorder.

Author information

1
Department of Human Development and Applied Psychology, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto.
2
Gender Identity Service, Child, Youth, and Family Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

Abstract

This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60% of the girls met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for GID, and 40% were subthreshold for the diagnosis. At follow-up, 3 participants (12%) were judged to have GID or gender dysphoria. Regarding sexual orientation, 8 participants (32%) were classified as bisexual/homosexual in fantasy, and 6 (24%) were classified as bisexual/homosexual in behavior. The remaining participants were classified as either heterosexual or asexual. The rates of GID persistence and bisexual/homosexual sexual orientation were substantially higher than base rates in the general female population derived from epidemiological or survey studies. There was some evidence of a "dosage" effect, with girls who were more cross-sex typed in their childhood behavior more likely to be gender dysphoric at follow-up and more likely to have been classified as bisexual/homosexual in behavior (but not in fantasy).

PMID:
18194003
DOI:
10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.34
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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