Send to

Choose Destination
J Diabetes Complications. 2008 Jan-Feb;22(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2006.10.003.

Suboptimal control of glycemia, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol in overweight adults with diabetes: the Look AHEAD Study.

Author information

Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.



The characteristics associated with meeting goals for glycemia, blood pressure (BP), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol for participants with diabetes were examined.


Baseline information on demographics, medical history, and anthropometry, as well as on hemoglobin A1c, BP, and LDL cholesterol levels, was measured in 5145 participants of Look AHEAD, a multicenter randomized trial performed to determine whether long-term weight loss and increased physical fitness reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Logistic regression was used to analyze these cross-sectional data to ascertain associations between participant characteristics and attainment of risk factor goals [hemoglobin A1c <7.0%, BP <130/80 mmHg, and LDL <100 mg/dl].


The study population had a mean age of 58.7 years and a mean body mass index of 36.0 kg/m(2). Of the total number of participants, 59.5% were female, 36.8% were of ethnic/racial minority, and 87.3% were on diabetes medications. Upon enrollment, 45.8% had hemoglobin A1c<7.0%, 51.7% had BP<130/80 mmHg, and 37.2% had LDL<100 mg/dl. All three goals were met by only 10.1%. We found consistent evidence for differences in risk factor control by age, gender, race/ethnicity, degree of obesity, education, income, CVD, source of medical care, and medication use. In multivariable analysis, African-American race, increasing degree of obesity, insulin use, and nonutilization of a lipid-lowering agent were associated with not meeting all risk factor goals.


These data demonstrate that numerous baseline characteristics are associated with suboptimal control of these cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese adults with diabetes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms


Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center