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Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2008 Jun;9(2):161-70. doi: 10.1007/s11154-007-9072-y. Epub 2008 Jan 4.

Vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents: epidemiology, impact and treatment.

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Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among children and adolescents worldwide. The high rates of vitamin D deficiency during childhood are of major public health relevance, given the growing evidence that vitamin D deficiency may play a key role in the pathophysiology of many chronic diseases beyond rickets, including autoimmune conditions, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Identification, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency in childhood may therefore have profound health effects throughout the life span. In this review, we discuss the definitions, epidemiology, clinical implications, and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents.

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