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J Athl Train. 2007 Oct-Dec;42(4):458-63.

Isokinetic scapular muscle performance in young elite gymnasts.

Author information

1
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, University Hospital Ghent, De Pintelaan 185, 6K3, B9000 Ghent, Belgium. ann.cools@ugent.be

Abstract

CONTEXT:

During gymnastic exercises, considerable force output is required in the shoulder girdle muscles. Isokinetic performance of the scapular muscles in young, elite gymnasts has not been examined.

OBJECTIVE:

To compare the isokinetic muscle performance of the scapular muscles between elite adolescent gymnasts and nonathletic adolescents to identify differences in strength, endurance, and muscle balance based on high-level sport participation.

DESIGN:

Single-session, repeated-measures design.

SETTING:

University human research laboratory.

PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:

Sixteen young, elite gymnasts and 26 age-matched nonathletic subjects participated in the study.

INTERVENTION(S):

Linear protraction-retraction movement in the scapular plane at 2 velocities (12.2 cm/s and 36.6 cm/s).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Isokinetic strength and endurance values, peak force/body mass, work/body mass, fatigue index (difference between the work performed in the first third and the last third of the test), and protraction to retraction strength ratios.

RESULTS:

Elite gymnasts demonstrated higher values for the protraction peak force/body mass than the control group demonstrated (P < .05), and they demonstrated higher protraction to retraction ratios on the nondominant side than on the dominant side (P < .05 at low velocity, P < .001 at high velocity). Work/body mass and fatigue index values were not statistically different between the groups. Side differences (P = .003) for retraction strength with lower protraction to retraction ratios (P < .001) were apparent in the gymnast group on the dominant side.

CONCLUSIONS:

Scapular muscle performance in elite, young gymnasts is characterized by increased protraction strength and altered muscular balance around the scapula compared with nonathletic adolescents.

KEYWORDS:

scapular muscle balance; scapulothoracic joint

PMID:
18174933
PMCID:
PMC2140070
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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