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Horm Res. 2007;68 Suppl 5:41-7. doi: 10.1159/000110474. Epub 2007 Dec 10.

Headache, idiopathic intracranial hypertension and slipped capital femoral epiphysis during growth hormone treatment: a safety update from the KIGS database.

Author information

1
Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Istanbul, Turkey. feyzad@istanbul.edu.tr

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Several uncommon adverse effects may be related to growth hormone (GH) treatment. Three potential side effects, headache, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), will be discussed. Data from 57,968 children in the KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Study database) were analyzed to determine the effects of recombinant human GH (Genotropin) on these side effects. The diagnostic groups were idiopathic GH deficiency (IGHD) (n = 27,690), congenital GHD (CGHD) (n = 2,547), craniopharyngioma (n = 1,155), cranial tumours (n = 2,203), Turner syndrome (TS) (n = 6,092), idiopathic short stature (ISS) (n = 5,286), small for gestational age (SGA) (n = 2,973), chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) (n = 1,753) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) (n = 1,368).

RESULTS:

Total incidence (per 100,000 treatment years) of headache was 793.5 (n = 569). The incidence was significantly higher in the groups of patients with craniopharyngiomas, CGHD and cranial tumours than in the other diagnostic groups (p < 0.05 for all). IIH occurred in 41 children resulting in a total incidence (per 100,000 treatment years) of 27.7. The incidence (per 100,000 treatment years) was significantly lower in patients with IGHD (12.2) than in those with TS (56.4) (p = 0.0004), CGHD (54.5) (p = 0.0064), PWS (68.3) (p = 0.0263) and CRI (147.8) (p < 0.001). No cases of IIH were reported in the ISS group of patients. The median duration from onset of GH therapy to IIH ranged from 0.01 to 1.3 years in various diagnostic groups. SCFE was observed in a total of 52 children resulting in a total incidence (per 100,000 treatment years) of 73.4. The incidence (per 100,000 treatment years) was significantly lower in patients with IGHD (18.3) and in those children with ISS (14.5) than in the TS (84.5), cranial tumours (86.1) and craniopharyngioma groups (120.5) (p < 0.05 for all). No cases of SCFE were reported in the SGA and PWS groups. The median duration from onset of GH therapy to SCFE ranged from 0.4 to 2.5 years.

CONCLUSIONS:

The incidences of IIH and SCFE in this analysis are lower than the values reported in previous KIGS analyses and comparable to other databases. Patients with TS, organic GHD, PWS and CRI seem to be more prone to these side effects.

PMID:
18174706
DOI:
10.1159/000110474
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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