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Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2008 Feb;23(1):60-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-302X.2007.00392.x.

Biological properties of the native and synthetic lipid A of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide.

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Department of Oral Microbiology, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan.



A pentaacyl and diphosphoryl lipid A molecule found in the lipid A isolated from Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was chemically synthesized, and its characteristics were evaluated to reconfirm its interesting bioactivities including low endotoxicity and activity against LPS-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mouse cells.


The synthesized P. gingivalis lipid A (synthetic Pg-LA) exhibited strong activities almost equivalent to those of Escherichia coli-type synthetic lipid A (compound 506) in all assays on LPS-responsive mice, and cells. LPS and native lipid A of P. gingivalis displayed overall endotoxic activities, but its potency was reduced in comparison to the synthetic analogs. In the assays using C3H/HeJ mouse cells, the LPS and native lipid A significantly stimulated splenocytes to cause mitosis, and peritoneal macrophages to induce tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 production. However, synthetic Pg-LA and compound 506 showed no activity on the LPS-unresponsive cells. Inhibition assays using some inhibitors including anti-human Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4/MD-2 complex monoclonal antibodies showed that the biological activity of synthetic Pg-LA was mediated only through the TLR4 signaling pathway, which might act as a receptor for LPS, whereas TLR2, possibly together with CD14, was associated with the signaling cascade for LPS and native lipid A of P. gingivalis, in addition to the TLR4 pathway.


These results suggested that the moderated and reduced biological activity of P. gingivalis LPS and native lipid A, including their activity on C3H/HeJ mouse cells via the TLR2-mediated pathway, may be mediated by bioactive contaminants or low acylated molecules present in the native preparations having multiple lipid A moieties.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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