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Oral Dis. 2008 Jan;14(1):73-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2007.01363.x.

Novel intraoral phenotypes in hyperimmunoglobulin-E syndrome.

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  • 1National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.



Hyperimmunoglobulin-E syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by eczema, recurrent skin and lung infections with pneumatocoele formation, and extremely elevated serum immunoglobulin-E. The precise immunologic defect and genetic etiology remain unknown. Non-immunologic findings include characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, fleshy nasal tip, and increased interalar distance); skeletal involvement (pathological fractures, scoliosis, and craniosynostosis); and retention of primary teeth. This study aims to characterize intraoral soft tissue findings in HIES patients.


Sixty HIES patients (4-54 years, 27 males, 33 females) received intraoral and radiographic evaluations. Chronological dental development was also assessed.


Lesions of the hard palate and dorsal tongue were found in 55% and 60% of patients, respectively. Palatal lesions ranged from a generalized surface keratosis to a midline sagittal fibrotic bridge. Tongue lesions consisted of multiple fissures and a midline cleft. On the lip and buccal mucosa, keratotic plaques and/or surface fissures were found in 8% and 23% of patients, respectively. Manifested in 76.7% of patients, the intraoral lesions were significantly more prevalent than the characteristic facial traits (P=0.0013).


Alterations in oral mucosa and gingiva were present in the majority of HIES patients. These novel intraoral findings may facilitate the diagnosis of HIES.

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