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J Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 1;197(1):102-8. doi: 10.1086/524061.

Greater tenofovir-associated renal function decline with protease inhibitor-based versus nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based therapy.

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Antiviral Research Center, University of California, San Diego, 150 W. Washington St., Ste. 100, San Diego, CA 92103, USA.



Plasma concentrations of tenofovir increase when the drug is coadministered with some ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r). We hypothesized that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-treated patients taking PI/r-based regimens would have a greater decline in renal function than patients receiving nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based therapy.


We compared the estimated decline in renal function among 146 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients receiving a TDF+PI/r- (n = 51), TDF+NNRTI- (n = 29), or non-TDF-containing (n = 66) regimen. Plasma tenofovir concentrations were measured at study week 2, and rates of creatinine clearance (CrCl) were estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault (C-G) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. Mixed-effects models were used to analyze regimen type and tenofovir concentration as predictors of change in CrCl from baseline to weeks 24 and 48.


Decreases in C-G estimates of CrCl were not significantly different among the 3 groups during the first 24 weeks of therapy. However, in adjusted analyses, patients receiving TDF+PI/r had a greater rate of decline in CrCl than did the TDF+NNRTI group (for C-G, -13.9 vs. -6.2 mL/min/year [P = .03]; for MDRD, -14.7 vs. -4.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year [P = .02]). Among TDF-treated patients, tenofovir plasma concentration was not associated with CrCl over time.


Treatment with TDF and PI/r was associated with greater declines in renal function over 48 weeks compared with TDF+NNRTI-based regimens.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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