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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008 Feb;31(2):107-14. Epub 2007 Dec 26.

Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia in adult patients in Asian countries: a prospective study by the Asian network for surveillance of resistant pathogens.

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Division of Infectious Diseases, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710, South Korea.


Appropriate antimicrobial treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) should be based on the distribution of aetiological pathogens, antimicrobial resistance of major pathogens, clinical characteristics and outcomes. We performed a prospective observational study of 955 cases of adult CAP in 14 hospitals in eight Asian countries. Microbiological evaluation to determine etiological pathogens as well as clinical evaluation was performed. Bronchopulmonary disease (29.9%) was the most frequent underlying disease, followed by cardiovascular diseases (19.9%), malignancy (11.7%) and neurological disorder (8.2%). Streptococcus pneumoniae (29.2%) was the most common isolate, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.4%) and Haemophilus influenzae (15.1%). Serological tests were positive for Mycoplasma pneumoniae (11.0%) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (13.4%). Only 1.1% was positive for Legionella pneumophila by urinary antigen test. Of the pneumococcal isolates, 56.1% were resistant to erythromycin and 52.6% were not susceptible to penicillin. Seventeen percent of CAP had mixed infection, especially S. pneumoniae with C. pneumoniae. The overall mortality rate was 7.3%, and nursing home residence, mechanical ventilation, malignancy, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory rate>30/min and hyponatraemia were significant independent risk factors for mortality by multivariate analysis (P<0.05). The current data provide relevant information about pathogen distribution and antimicrobial resistance of major pathogens of CAP as well as clinical outcomes of illness in Asian countries.

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