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J Pediatr Orthop. 2008 Jan-Feb;28(1):124-7.

Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as septic knee arthritis in a 5-year-old child.

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Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY 10003, USA.


Group A streptococci, also known as Streptococcus pyogenes, is a common cause of infection in the pediatric population. Recently, the incidence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, a serious and often deadly manifestation of group A streptococci infection, has increased. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome often presents with complaints of musculoskeletal pain, which frequently leads to early involvement of an orthopaedic surgeon. In this case report, we present a 5-year-old child who presented with a septic arthritis of the knee, whose final diagnosis was streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. A review of the literature and the aspects of this case report emphasize the emergent nature of streptococcal joint infections and the judicious use of orthopaedic intervention in such patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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