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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Mar;93(3):735-42. Epub 2007 Dec 18.

Prevalence and determinants of elevated apolipoprotein B and dense low-density lipoprotein in youths with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

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Department of Medicine, Northwest Lipid Metabolism and Diabetes Research Laboratories, University of Washington, 401 Queen Anne Avenue North, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.



The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of elevated apolipoprotein B (apoB) and dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in United States youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.


We conducted cross-sectional analyses of apoB concentrations, LDL density, and prevalence of elevated apoB levels and dense LDL from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, a six-center U.S.-based study of youth with diabetes onset younger than 20 years of age (2657 with type 1 and 345 with type 2).


Among youth with type 1 diabetes, 11% had elevated apoB (>or=100 mg/dl, 1.95 mm/liter), 8% had dense LDL (relative flotation rate<or=0.237), and 12% had elevated LDL-cholesterol (>or=130 mg/dl, 3.36 mm/liter). In contrast, among youth with type 2 diabetes, 36% had elevated apoB, 36% had dense LDL, but only 23% had elevated LDL-cholesterol. Dense LDL and apoB each increased with hemoglobin A1c in both types. Among type 1 diabetics in poor glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c>or=9.5%), 28% had elevated apoB, and 18% had dense LDL, whereas 72% of poorly controlled type 2 diabetics had elevated apoB and 62% had dense LDL.


In youth with type 1 diabetes, elevated apoB and dense LDL were not highly prevalent, whereas elevated apoB and dense LDL were common lipoprotein abnormalities in youth with type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of these risk factors substantially increased with poor glycemic control in both groups, stressing the importance of achieving and maintaining an optimal glucose control.

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