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J Biomed Mater Res A. 2008 Oct;87(1):129-35.

The artificial surface-induced whole blood inflammatory reaction revealed by increases in a series of chemokines and growth factors is largely complement dependent.

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Department of Medicine, Nordland Hospital, Bodø, Norway.


Exposing blood to an artificial surface results in a systemic inflammatory response, including cytokine release and complement activation. We studied the artificial surface-induced inflammation in human whole blood using an extensive panel of inflammatory mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth-factors and investigated the role of the complement system in the induction of this response. Using multiplex technology, 27 different inflammatory mediators were measured after circulating blood for 4 hours in polyvinyl chloride tubing. The C3 inhibitor compstatin was used to block complement activation. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in 14 of the 27 mediators was induced by the surface, of which 7 were chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, RANTES, eotaxin and IP-10) and 5 were growth-factors (G-CSF, GM-CSF, VEGF, PDGF and FGF). The traditional proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1beta, TNFalpha and IL-6 were not induced, although IL-6, as well as IL-15 and IL-17 increased if the surface was coated with highly bioincompatible laminaran. Inhibition of complement activation with compstatin significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the formation of 12 of the 14 mediators. For 10 of the 12 mediators, the inhibition was by 2/3 or more, for the remaining two the inhibition was more moderate. A highly biocompatible heparin-coated PVC surface was used as negative control and completely abolished the whole inflammatory response. The artificial surface PVC markedly induced a broad spectrum of chemokines and growth-factors, which was largely dependent on activation of complement.

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