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Mod Pathol. 2008 Feb;21(2):105-14. Epub 2007 Dec 14.

Hierarchical cluster analysis of myoepithelial/basal cell markers in adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.

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1
Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. prasadm@ummhc.org

Abstract

Distinguishing adenoid cystic carcinoma from polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands is important for their management. We studied the expression of several myoepithelial and basal/stem cell markers (smooth muscle actin, calponin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, metallothionein, maspin, and p63) by immunohistochemistry in 23 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 24 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, to identify the most useful marker or combination of markers that may help their diagnoses. The results were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis and chi(2) test for trend. We noted diffuse expression of smooth muscle actin in 20 adenoid cystic carcinoma vs one polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (P<0.0001), calponin in 15 adenoid cystic carcinoma vs one polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (P<0.0001), smooth muscle myosin heavy chain in 15 adenoid cystic carcinoma vs one polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (P=0.001), metallothionein in 22 adenoid cystic carcinoma vs eight polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (P<0.001), maspin in 22 adenoid cystic carcinoma vs 14 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, and p63 in 21 adenoid cystic carcinoma vs 14 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Hierarchical clustering of smooth muscle actin, calponin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, and metallothionein was virtually identical (kappa< or =0.0035), suggesting no significant advantage to their use in combination than individually. Diffuse smooth muscle actin expression showed the highest accuracy (91.5%) and positive predictive value (95.2%) for adenoid cystic carcinoma. Thus, diffuse expression of smooth muscle actin, calponin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, and metallothionein was highly predictive of adenoid cystic carcinoma, whereas maspin and p63 were frequently expressed in both tumors. In differentiating adenoid cystic carcinoma from polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, smooth muscle actin as a single ancillary test in support of the histological findings, appears to be as efficient as multiple immunohistochemical tests.

PMID:
18084258
DOI:
10.1038/modpathol.3800983
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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