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Br J Nutr. 2008 Jul;100(1):18-26. Epub 2007 Dec 17.

Regulation of angiopoietin-like protein 4/fasting-induced adipose factor (Angptl4/FIAF) expression in mouse white adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

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Obesity Biology Unit, Liverpool Obesity Research Network, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Duncan Building, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK.


Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4)/FIAF (fasting-induced adipose factor) was first identified as a target for PPAR and to be strongly induced in white adipose tissue (WAT) by fasting. Here we have examined the regulation of the expression and release of this adipokine in mouse WAT and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Angptl4/FIAF expression was measured by RT-PCR and real-time PCR; plasma Angptl4/FIAF and release of the protein in cell culture was determined by western blotting. The Angptl4/FIAF gene was expressed in each of the major WAT depots of mice, the mRNA level in WAT being similar to the liver and much higher (>50-fold) than skeletal muscle. Fasting mice (18 h) resulted in a substantial increase in Angptl4/FIAF mRNA in liver and muscle (9.5- and 21-fold, respectively); however, there was no effect of fasting on Angptl4/FIAF mRNA in WAT and the plasma level of Angptl4/FIAF was unchanged. The Angptl4/FIAF gene was expressed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes before and after differentiation, the level increasing post-differentiation; Angptl4/FIAF was released into the culture medium. Insulin, leptin, dexamethasone, noradrenaline, TNFalpha and several IL (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18) had little effect on Angptl4/FIAF mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, a major stimulation of Angptl4/FIAF expression was observed with rosiglitazone and the inflammatory prostaglandins PGD2 and PGJ2. Angptl4/FIAF does not act as an adipose tissue signal of nutritional status, but is markedly induced by fasting in liver and skeletal muscle.

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