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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Dec 18;104(51):20612-7. Epub 2007 Dec 12.

Deficient ryanodine receptor S-nitrosylation increases sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak and arrhythmogenesis in cardiomyocytes.

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Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, and Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, 1120 Northwest 14th Street, Suite 1124, Miami, FL 33136, USA.


Altered Ca(2+) homeostasis is a salient feature of heart disease, where the calcium release channel ryanodine receptor (RyR) plays a major role. Accumulating data support the notion that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) regulates the cardiac RyR via S-nitrosylation. We tested the hypothesis that NOS1 deficiency impairs RyR S-nitrosylation, leading to altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. Diastolic Ca(2+) levels are elevated in NOS1(-/-) and NOS1/NOS3(-/-) but not NOS3(-/-) myocytes compared with wild-type (WT), suggesting diastolic Ca(2+) leakage. Measured leak was increased in NOS1(-/-) and NOS1/NOS3(-/-) but not in NOS3(-/-) myocytes compared with WT. Importantly, NOS1(-/-) and NOS1/NOS3(-/-) myocytes also exhibited spontaneous calcium waves. Whereas the stoichiometry and binding of FK-binding protein 12.6 to RyR and the degree of RyR phosphorylation were not altered in NOS1(-/-) hearts, RyR2 S-nitrosylation was substantially decreased, and the level of thiol oxidation increased. Together, these findings demonstrate that NOS1 deficiency causes RyR2 hyponitrosylation, leading to diastolic Ca(2+) leak and a proarrhythmic phenotype. NOS1 dysregulation may be a proximate cause of key phenotypes associated with heart disease.

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