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Anesthesiology. 2007 Nov;107(5):697-704.

Effect of equiosmolar solutions of mannitol versus hypertonic saline on intraoperative brain relaxation and electrolyte balance.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle 98104, USA. irozet@u.washington.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of equiosmolar solutions of mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) on brain relaxation and electrolyte balance.

METHODS:

After institutional review board approval and informed consent, patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II-IV, scheduled to undergo craniotomy for various brain pathologies, were enrolled into this prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Patients received 5 ml/kg 20% mannitol (n = 20) or 3% HS (n = 20). Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood was maintained at 35-40 mmHg, and central venous pressure was maintained at 5 mmHg or greater. Hemodynamic variables, fluid balance, blood gases, electrolytes, lactate, and osmolality (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine) were measured at 0, 15, 30, and 60 min and 6 h after infusion; arteriovenous difference of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were calculated. The surgeon assessed brain relaxation on a four-point scale (1 = relaxed, 2 = satisfactory, 3 = firm, 4 = bulging). Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison; P < 0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS:

There was no difference in brain relaxation (mannitol = 2, HS = 2 points; P = 0.8) or cerebral arteriovenous oxygen and lactate difference between HS and mannitol groups. Urine output with mannitol was higher than with HS (P < 0.03) and was associated with higher blood lactate over time (P < 0.001, compared with HS). Cerebrospinal fluid osmolality increased at 6 h in both groups (P < 0.05, compared with baseline). HS caused an increase in sodium in cerebrospinal fluid over time (P < 0.001, compared with mannitol).

CONCLUSION:

Mannitol and HS cause an increase in cerebrospinal fluid osmolality, and are associated with similar brain relaxation scores and arteriovenous oxygen and lactate difference during craniotomy.

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[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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