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Physiology (Bethesda). 2007 Dec;22:380-9.

The role of shear stress on ET-1, KLF2, and NOS-3 expression in the developing cardiovascular system of chicken embryos in a venous ligation model.

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  • 1Department of Medical Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


In this review, the role of wall shear stress in the chicken embryonic heart is analyzed to determine its effect on cardiac development through regulating gene expression. Therefore, background information is provided for fluid dynamics, normal chicken and human heart development, cardiac malformations, cardiac and vitelline blood flow, and a chicken model to induce cardiovascular anomalies. A set of endothelial shear stress-responsive genes coding for endothelin-1 (ET-1), lung Kr├╝ppel-like factor (LKLF/KLF2), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/NOS-3) are active in development and are specifically addressed.

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