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Cancer Invest. 2007 Dec;25(8):726-32.

Transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene polymorphisms and expression in the blood of prostate cancer patients.

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Federal University of Uberlândia, Institute of Genetics and Biochemistry, Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil.


The transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) is a multifunctional cytokine with several regulatory activities in tumor cells affecting growth, differentiation, and function. Alterations in gene expression, secretion, and regulation of TGF-beta1 may lead to a favorable environment for tumor development by angiogenesis stimulation and immune system suppression. We evaluated the influence of the TGFB1 polymorphisms by ARMS-PCR, Leu10Pro, and Arg25Pro, on prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We assessed TGFB1 polymorphisms and their relation to mRNA levels (semi-quantitative RT-PCR) in blood samples as well as the implications in disease occurrence and progression. Peripheral blood samples from 175 patients were analyzed as to 92 BPH and 83 PCa. Samples obtained from 132 healthy males were used as negative controls. PCa patients with a Gleason score greater than 7 presented a higher frequency of the C allele (Leu10Pro). This allele was associated with a higher risk of developing PCa and BPH compared to the population (2.6 and 3.6 times higher, respectively). Patients with TGFB1 transcript levels equal to or more than 70% higher than control levels presented a 5.34 and 2.14-fold higher risk of having PCa and BPH, respectively, relative to the population. No association was detected between polymorphisms and mRNA levels. The C allele of the Leu10Pro polymorphism may predispose men to a more rapid cancer progression. Additionally, higher mRNA levels in the peripheral blood of PCa patients suggest that tumor cells may be disseminated in the circulation and could be used as a biomarker for extra-capsular invasion.

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